Sucrose, also called table sugar, (C12H22O11) is a sweet crystalline sugar used in cooking. It is commonly made from sugar beets and sugar cane. Despite the similar name, it is different than sucralose.
Sucrose is available in different crystal sizes, with the most commonly available called granulated sugar which is often used in baking. When the crystals are larger than granulated sugar they are more resistant to heat and called coarse sugar for the larger crystals and sanding sugar for the size in between coarse and granulated. When granulated sugar is ground to a smaller crystal size to prevent caking, it is refereed to interchangeably as powdered sugar, confectioner's sugar, and icing sugar. Caster sugar, also called superfine sugar or bar sugar has the smallest crystal size and is used to sweeten cold beverages as it does not need heat to dissolve.